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Effect of Prophylactic Treatments on Surface Characteristics of Various Zirconia

Grant Winners

  • Sibel Antonson, Ph.D. – College of Dental Medicine
  • Patricia Blackwelder, Ph.D. – Halmos College of Oceanography and Natural Sciences
  • Audrey Galka, DDS – College of Dental Medicine
  • Evren Kilinc, Ph.D. – College of Dental Medicine
  • Thani Alsharari, MS – College of Dental Medicine
  • Mehdi Garashi, DDS – College of Dental Medicine


  • Linda C. Niessen, D.M.D., M.P.H., M.P.P. – College of Dental Medicine
  • Richard Dodge, Ph.D. – Halmos College of Oceanography and Natural Sciences


Award Winners The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of prophylactic pastes on the surface gloss and roughness of three contemporary Zirconia restorative materials and human enamel. Background: Prophylactic procedures are commonly applied as a periodic preventive measure to control plaque and calculus. However, conventional prophylactic pastes can increase the roughness of teeth and restoration surfaces by removing superficial layers. It has been reported that increased surface roughness and reduced gloss resulting from the abrasive nature of routine prophylaxis procedures lead to increased plaque retention and discoloration. Methods: A total of sixty specimens, composed of three types of Zirconia will be prepared to test the hypothesis. Twenty specimens will be assigned to each Zirconia group: multi-layered (IPS e.max ZirCAD MT Multi, IvoclarVivadent), monochromatic medium translucency (IPS e.max ZirCAD MT, IvoclarVivadent) and conventional low-translucency (IPS e.max ZirCAD LT, IvoclarVivadent). They will be prepared by sectioning the CAD/CAM blocks into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm), and finished/polished gradually down to 1,200 grit size. They will be ultrasonically cleaned, dried, sintered and glazed using their respective glazes according to manufacturers' instructions. Four intact human enamel surfaces (E) will serve as a control group. Baseline surface gloss and roughness will be measured with a Glossometer (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instruments, East Sussex, UK), and with a Profilometer (Veeco Dektek 150, Plainview, NY) from 3 spots on each specimen. Baseline SEM images will be created as well. Five specimens from each group will be randomly assigned to one of the four groups of the following prophylactic polishing pastes: Proxyt coarse/fine (PC/PF) (IvoclarVivadent), Nupro coarse/fine (NC/NF) (Dentsply). They will be applied to the specimens by a calibrated/blind operator using un-impregnated prophylactic cups according to the manufacturers' instructions for 40s (10 second intervals) under a constant load of 400gr at 3,000rpm. Surface gloss and roughness of the specimens will be re-measured and verified with SEM. A mixed, general linear model will be used for statistics, and significance will be accepted at p <0.05. Post-hoc comparisons will be conducted using Tukey test. Significance:
This study will raise awareness of a potential detrimental effect of a common procedure that has been implemented as routine dental care. There is no evidence regarding the effect of commercially available prophylactic pastes on Zirconia. Understanding the variability in abrasive content among prophylactic pastes can offer better understanding of the impact of prophylactic pastes on the long term quality of esthetic dental restorations.
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