College of Optometry 237 • What changes in your application make you a more competitive candidate? * MCAT, PCAT, or DAT scores no more than two years old are also accepted, but not preferred. Core Performance Standards for Admission and Progress Intellectual, Conceptual, Integrative, and Qualitative Abilities These abilities include measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis, and synthesis. Problem solving—a critical skill— requires all of these intellectual abilities. Candidates and students must have critical thinking ability sufficient for good clinical judgment. This is necessary to identify causeeffect relationships in clinical situations and to develop plans of care. In addition, candidates and students should be able to comprehend three-dimensional relationships and to understand the spatial relationships of structures. An individual is expected to be able to perform multiple tasks in a diverse, dynamic, highly competitive, and challenging learning environment. Examples include, but are not limited to, identification of cause/effect relationships in clinical situations, development of treatment plans, transferring knowledge from one situation to another, evaluating outcomes, problem solving, prioritizing, and using short- and long-term memory. All individuals are expected to meet their program requirements on a satisfactory level as determined by HPD administration or the applicable college/program administration. Interpersonal Communication Candidates and students must be able to interact and communicate effectively, with respect to policies, protocols, and process—with faculty and staff members, students, patients, patient surrogates, and administration—during the student’s educational program. They must be able to communicate effectively and sensitively with patients. Communication includes not only speech, but also reading and writing. Candidates and students must also be able to communicate effectively and efficiently in all written forms with all members of the health care team. They must have interpersonal abilities sufficient to interact with individuals, families, and groups from a variety of social, emotional, cultural, and intellectual backgrounds. A student must have sufficient proficiency with English to retrieve information from texts and lectures and communicate concepts on written exams and patient charts; elicit patient backgrounds; describe patient changes in moods, activity, and posture; and coordinate patient care with all members of the health care team. A student must be able to communicate or provide communication in lay language so that patients and their families can understand the patient’s conditions, treatment options, and instructions. The student must be able to accurately enter information in the patient’s electronic health record, according to his or her program’s requirements. Motor Skills Candidates and students must have sufficient motor function to execute movements reasonably required to provide general care and emergency treatment to patients. Examples of emergency treatment reasonably required of some health care professionals are cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), administration of intravenous medication, the application of pressure to stop bleeding, the opening of obstructed airways, and the ability to calibrate and use various pieces of equipment. Such actions require coordination of both gross and fine muscular movements, equilibrium, and functional use of the senses of touch and vision. Strength and Mobility Candidates and students must have sufficient mobility to attend emergency codes and to perform such maneuvers as CPR when required. They much have the physical ability to move sufficiently from room to room and maneuver in small places. Hearing Candidates and students must have sufficient auditory ability to monitor and assess health needs. They must be able to hear information given by the patient in answer to inquires; to hear cries for help; to hear features in an examination, such as the auscultatory sounds; and to monitor equipment. Visual Candidates and students must have visual ability sufficient for observation, assessment, and rendering of treatment necessary in patient care. It must be consistent in many cases with being able to assess asymmetry, range of motion, and tissue texture changes. Students must have sufficient visual ability to use ophthalmologic instruments. It is necessary to have adequate visual capabilities for proper evaluation and treatment integration. Candidates and students must be able to observe the patient and the patient’s responses, including body language and features of the examination and treatment. A student must also possess the visual acuity to read charts, records, radiographs, small print, and handwritten notation. Tactile Candidates and students must have sufficient tactile ability for physical assessment. They must be able to perform palpation and functions of physical examination and/or those related to therapeutic intervention. The student must be able to use tactile senses to diagnose directly by palpation and indirectly by sensations transmitted through instruments.