NSU Home  The Qualitative Report
An online bi-monthly journal dedicated to qualitative research since 1990

Volume 16 Number 6 November 2011
    Ronald J. Chenail, Ph.D., Sally St. George, Ph.D., Dan Wulff, Ph.D., Maureen Duffy, Ph.D.,
Laurie L. Charles, Ph.D., Karen Wilson Scott, Ph.D., and Robin Cooper, Ph.D., Editors
Laura Patron, Managing Editor | Adam Rosenthal, TQR Community Coordinator

ISSN 1052-0147

Table of Contents


More about "Research in Ambiguous, Conflictual, and Changing Contexts": Studying Ethnic Populations in China, Xi'an to Urumqi (pp. 1465-1476)
PDF Full Text

Linda Dorsten and Yuhui Li

Abstract: A recent article in this journal discusses ways to manage uncertainty when the research field abruptly and significantly changes on researchers working inside their own society (Kacen & Chaitin, 2006). Our essay extends this discussion by asking: How do researchers manage ambiguous, conflictual, and rapidly changing events when they engage in study outside their own society? We describe three aspects of our data collection experience that coincidentally began one week before the Urumqi city, Xinjiang, China, riots of 2009 in which over 200 people were reported as killed and several thousand injured: (a). our original research agenda and the uncertain situation in Xinjiang in recent years; (b). how we modified our research project and approach to data collection; and (c). what we learned that can contribute to knowledge about conducting research under ambiguous, potentially unstable and rapidly changing socio-political conditions. Key Words: Research and Context, Racial Tension and Conflict, China, Ethnic Minorities.

Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting (pp. 1477-1495)
PDF Full Text

Kim Loyens, Jeroen Maesschalck, and Geert Bouckaert

Abstract: This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social trends. The results demonstrate how police authorities could implement judgmental forecasting methods like Delphi methodology for the anticipation of future criminal trends, and how this technique, applied under specific conditions, can complement current crime analysis techniques. This article will not focus on criminal trends that were forecasted in the pilot project, but on the preconditions for using the Delphi method in criminal justice policy. Hence, this article could contribute to future applications of judgmental forecasting techniques by practitioners in both criminal justice systems and other policy domains. Key Words: Delphi Method, Forecasting, Criminal Justice Policy, Police Priorities, Crime Analysis.

AIDS Related Stigma in Social Relations: A Qualitative Study in Turkey (pp. 1496-1516)
PDF Full Text

Aytul Kasapoglu, Elif Kus Saillard, Nilay Kaya, and Feryal Turan

Abstract: The actual number of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey is higher than the number of cases reported, and People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) may refrain from acknowledging their sickness or seeking help because of the stigma associated with HIV and fear of discrimination from their close friends, workmates, and even their families. In this paper we aim to explore HIV-positive people's relationships with significant others such as family members, friends, sexual partners, employers and health professionals in order to present the patients' perceptions about stigma and attitudes that lead to pro-social or anti-social behavior towards them. We carried out a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with 16 PLWHIV in order to understand the conditions of people living with HIV/AIDS in Turkey. Our results revealed that except for family relations, the fear of contagion is the main obstacle for HIV-positive people's relations with others. HIV-positive people are severely afflicted with discrimination due to the overlapping "instrumental" and "symbolic" stigmas that directly affect their relations. The attribute of responsibility is related to gender and socio-economic status of PLWHIV living in Turkey. Key Words: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Social Relations, Attributions, Turkey, Grounded Theory.

From Tactics to Praxis: Learning Feminist Pedagogy through Methodology (pp. 1517-1539)
PDF Full Text

Laura L. Janik-Marusov, Lauren M. Sardi, Dina Giovanelli, Rita Offiaeli, and Deric Shannon

Abstract: Through a self-reflexive and ongoing process, in this paper we chronicle how we as graduate students learned about feminist pedagogy through methodology. Primarily, we noted dilemmas in feminist methodology that became central dilemmas for us in our roles as feminist research guides within a combined graduate and undergraduate feminist methodologies course. As we became aware of these specific dilemmas, not only did we attempt to apply them to the research we were conducting for an institutional ethnographic research project on campus safety, but we also found them to be central pedagogical concerns in ways that were both unique and similar to each individual graduate student. Our analysis focuses on the insider/outsider dilemma, self-reflection, and multiple subjectivities in the hopes that we can share our experiences of what became a vital and unique learning experience. Key Words: Dual Positionality, Feminist Pedagogy, Insider/Outsider Dilemma, Multiple Subjectivities, Self Reflection.

Contextualizing the Perceived Barriers of Adult Learners in an Accelerated Undergraduate Degree Program (pp. 1540-1553)
PDF Full Text

David Deggs

Abstract: Research has consistently suggested that colleges and universities should review academic programs and support services in order to make modifications to meet the needs of adult learners. However, one could argue that colleges and universities cannot be successful in meeting adult learners' needs without understanding the barriers they experience. This study utilized phenomenology to examine the perceived barriers of adult learners in an accelerated undergraduate degree program in the mid-South. Analysis of data collected from adult learners identified three types of barriers: (a). intrapersonal, (b). career and job-related barriers, and (c). academic-related. The results of this study suggested that barriers are never extinct for adult learners and they must work to overcome or manage barriers which emerge from their multiple life roles. Key Words: Adult Learners, Higher Education, Distance Education, Barriers to Learning, Phenomenological Research.

Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process? (pp. 1554-1573)
PDF Full Text

Selami Aydin

Abstract: Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading in L1 on the process of learning EFL. The sample group consists of 70 learners and a background questionnaire, interviews, oral presentations, classroom discussions, essay papers, and responses to examination questions were used for data collection. The results indicated that recreational reading in L1 has some significant contributions to EFL learning although it has some negative effects. Key Words: Recreational Reading, Turkish as a Native Language, English as a Foreign Language Learning, Qualitative Research.

Methodological Gravitism (pp. 1574-1598)
PDF Full Text

Muhammad Zaman

Abstract: In this paper the author presents the case of the exchange marriage system to delineate a model of methodological gravitism. Such a model is not a deviation from or alteration to the existing qualitative research approaches. I have adopted culturally specific methodology to investigate spouse selection in line with the Grounded Theory Method. This approach, indeed, suggests the unification of methodological individualism, collectivism, and the social positioning of the actor to study the complex and intricately intertwined networks of relatedness. Key Words: Methodological Grativism, Qualitative Research, Pakistan, Exchange Marriages.

Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism (pp. 1599-1615)
PDF Full Text

Lars-Johan Age

Abstract: Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of positivism, hermeneutics, and pragmatism; and (b) the general philosophical questions of the aims of science and the issue of choosing a scientific methodology. The commentary then seeks to position grounded theory methodology in terms of these philosophical perspectives. The study concludes that grounded theory methodology contains elements of positivism, hermeneutics, and pragmatism. In coming to this conclusion, the study clarifies the degree to which these three perspectives are found within Glaserian grounded theory methodology. Key Words: Grounded Theory, Positivism, Hermeneutics, Pragmatism

Understanding the Evolving Roles of Improvement-Oriented High School Teachers in Gilgit-Baltistan (pp. 1616-1644)
PDF Full Text

Takbir Ali

Abstract: In this paper the author presents a framework for understanding how improvement-oriented high school teachers' accounts of change experiences portray their evolving roles as change agents in school reform. The data on which this paper is based come from a one-year long in-depth study (doctoral thesis research project) in which the author set out to investigate how improvement-oriented teachers pursue important changes in the realm of classroom, school and community; how the teachers-initiated changes can be characterized; and how the teachers' roles evolve with their change practices. The researcher employed qualitative case study methodology, using in-depth interviews, classroom observations, post-observation discussion, and document analysis, as the main sources of data. The teachers whose change practices and values are depicted in this report recognize their roles in pedagogical, institutional and social change, and wherever possible, they try to engage in efforts to bring these changes about. Through the study the author recognizes an inherent link between teachers' endeavors aimed at bringing about fundamental change in the classroom and their efforts towards promoting institutional change in the schools and social change in the community. Key Words: Qualitative Research, Case Study, Educational Change, Improvement-Oriented Teachers, Pedagogical Change, Institutional Change, Social Change, Teachers' Evolving Roles.

Working Together more than Alone: Students' Evolving Perceptions of Self and Community within a Four-Year Educational Administration Doctoral Cohort (pp. 1645-1668)
PDF Full Text

Lance Ford and Courtney Vaughn

Abstract: School administrators rarely have the opportunity to confer and share their challenges with colleagues. To address this problem in 2005 the Educational Administration Department (EAD) at Central University (a Midwestern PhD granting institution located in a thriving city of about 100,00 people) created a virtual/local doctoral cohort for 14 school leaders living and working in two states. Three years into the course of study we conducted a year long inquiry that asked, "How did students' self-perceptions evolve within a cohort context, and how did these changes advance or retard professional learning community (PLC) growth?" Our interviews had a phenomenological focus but we used symbolic interactionism to analyze them and dramaturgy to present our findings. Themes of faculty and student relationships, work and/or personal problems and dealing with technology indicated that despite some significant hurdles students' identity evolutions moved the group toward becoming a PLC, a collaborative culture of thinkers. Key Words: Learning Communities, Doctoral Cohorts, Phenomenology, Dramaturgy.

Who wants to be a Physical Education Teacher? A Case Study of a Non-Traditional Undergraduate Student in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program (pp. 1669-1687)
PDF Full Text

Scott Ronspies

Abstract: Forty percent of undergraduate students are non-traditional students. The purpose of this study was to identify what attracted the participant to physical education, identify what situational/social factors facilitated the career choice, and the beliefs of the participant about what it meant to be a physical educator. The study consisted of one male non-traditional student. Artifacts, observation, and interview methods were employed to gain an understanding of why the participant wanted to become a physical educator and what were the beliefs of the participant about physical education teaching or teachers. Findings indicated the participant was attracted to physical education by his love for physical activity, sport, and the chance to work with youth. His socialization into physical education was influenced by situational and social factors, such as positive experiences with a teacher/coach, positive support of family and friends, and his strong beliefs/values for physical education/teaching. Key Words: Career Choice, Qualitative Research, Socialization, Case Study.

Competing Cultural Worldviews in the United States: A Phenomenological Examination of the Essential Core Elements of Transnationalism and Transculturalism (pp. 1688-1714)
PDF Full Text

Mark P. Orbe and Darlene K. Drummond

Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore inductively the complex ways in which everyday discourse reflects larger - and often competing - cultural worldviews. A phenomenological framework was used to analyze transcripts generated through 13 focus group discussions involving 100 individuals. This particular analysis highlights how individuals who adopted a transnational worldview worked to transform cultural divisions through criticism of existing labels that failed to capture the multicultural nature of their identifies. Alternatively, individuals who adopted a transcultural worldview worked to transcend traditional cultural divisions through a rejection of traditional labels that worked against one unified social identity. The thematic insights generated through the study are significant in that they provide a heuristic framework for scholars and practitioners who are interested in promoting greater understanding through engaging transnationalism, transculturalism, and related issues. Key Words: Transculturalism, Transnationalism, Phenomenology, Cultural Identity, Cultural Labels, Assimilation, U.S. Diversity.

How-To Essay

Ten Steps for Conceptualizing and Conducting Qualitative Research Studies in a Pragmatically Curious Manner (pp. 1715-1732)
PDF Full Text

Ronald J. Chenail

Abstract: In a world of methodological pluralism and mixed-methods, qualitative researchers can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and the possible design and methodology choices to create studies that not only allow them to pursue their investigative curiosities, but also result in coherent and effective systems of procedural choices. Ten steps are offered for researchers to conceive and conduct qualitative research projects that are both responsive to research goals and objectives and defendable to criteria of quality and critics of utility. Key Words: Qualitative Research, Research Design, Research Methodology, Mixed-Methods, Methodological Pluralism, Pragmatic Curiosity

Appraising Qualitative Research Reports: A Developmental Approach (pp. 1733-1742)
PDF Full Text

Robin Cooper

Abstract: In this paper, the author discusses the development of an appraisal instrument designed for evaluating submissions to The Qualitative Report-the TQR Rubric. Following a description of the context of TQR, she explains what led to the development of the TQR Rubric and describes its components. She concludes by presenting the plan of implementation of the rubric and a discussion of how the TQR Rubric's elements relate to notions of quality presented in the literature. Key Words: Qualitative Research, Appraising, Quality, Peer Review Process, Social Constructionism.

Book Reviews

Voicing the Less Heard: A Review of Focus Group Methodology: Principles and Practice (pp. 1743-1748)
PDF Full Text

Derya Kulavuz-Onal

Abstract: Focus Group Methodology: Principles and Practice is a powerful text in not only equipping novice researchers with all the stages of designing a focus group, but also facilitating their understanding of the philosophies and in-depth principles of focus group methodology. Although the text seems to have specifically aimed at researchers in health and social sciences, beginning qualitative researchers in other fields, such as educational sciences, can also gain valuable insights. The text also provides detailed accounts of previous research where focus groups have been used as well as an intensive discussion of more specific topics such as focus groups with vulnerable groups, focus groups in cross-cultural research, and virtual focus groups. Key Words: Focus Group Methodology, Interviewing, Qualitative Research in Health Sciences, Qualitative Research in Social Sciences, Vulnerable Groups in Research, Sensitive Research.

A Review of Qualitative Research in Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 1749-1752)
PDF Full Text

Nozomu Ozaki

Abstract: In reviewing Qualitative Research in Counseling and Psychotherapy (McLeod, 2011), I encountered with this text a backdrop of a grand tour question, "How well has the author contextualized qualitative inquiry in the realm of counseling and psychotherapy theory and practice?" I found McLeod (2011) constantly embedding qualitative methodology and plethora of methods into counseling and psychotherapy field by pointing out the relationship between research and practice of counseling and psychotherapy and giving detailed account on philosophical foundations and actual practice of qualitative methods while zigzagging among multiple levels of contexts. At the same time, McLeod maintained his pluralistic position on methodologies and methods by critically examining multiple forms of knowing and positioning toward production of knowledge. Key Words: Qualitative Research, Counseling, Psychotherapy.

Ophthalmology for the Myopic Methodologist: A Review of Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis (pp. 1753-1756)
PDF Full Text

Carl Root

Abstract: In Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis, Frederick J. Wertz, Kathy Charmaz, Linda M. McMullen, Ruthellen Josselson, and Rosemarie Anderson provide students and researchers with both a broad knowledge base and specific examples of each of their preferred methods of analysis. The authors apply their respective expertise of phenomenological psychology, grounded theory, discourse analysis, narrative research, and intuitive inquiry to sixth author Emalinda McSpadden's narrative of responding to an unfortunate situation. The result is a comprehensive comparison of each method emphasizing unique strengths and weaknesses in each approach as well as the reflexivity required of researchers utilizing such analyses. Key Words: Phenomenological Psychology, Grounded Theory, Discourse Analysis, Narrative Research, Intuitive Inquiry.

here to get Adobe Acrobat Reader

Return to Table of Contents

Return to the TQR Home Page