NSU Home  The Qualitative Report
An online journal dedicated to qualitative research since 1990

Volume 12 Number 3 September 2007
http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR12-3/index.html
 
    Ronald J. Chenail, Ph.D., Sally St. George, Ph.D., Dan Wulff, Ph.D., Maureen Duffy, Ph.D., and Laurie L. Charles, Ph.D., Editors
ISSN 1052-0147

Table of Contents

Making Use of Bilingual Interview Data: Some Experiences from the Field (pp. 344-355)
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Nelofer Halai

Abstract: This paper describes the challenges faced, and rules devised, while dealing with bilingual interview data as part of a life history study of a female science teachers conceptions of the nature of science while teaching in a school in Karachi. The interview data generated was both in Urdu and English, which underwent a number of processes (transcription, translation, and transliteration) to evolve into interim texts, to finally become a part of the data analysis process. I have called these translated materials transmuted texts, as they reflect the original, but have been recreated. This paper is significant because as globalization connects diverse societies, more research studies have to deal with research data in more than one language. Key Words: Qualitative Research Methods, Interview Data Analysis, Bilingual Data, Transcription, Transliteration, and Translation

Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families (pp. 356-374)
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Marlene Pomrenke

Abstract: Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to childrens ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory gained from this study yielded that children from separated or divorced, high-conflict families exhibit resilient characteristics when family cohesion is used to incorporate additional family support systems, particularly step-parents and extended family members. External support systems, particularly peers, augment these resilient characteristics. In order to build resilience in pre-teen children parents need to encourage relationships with external and internal support systems. Key Words: Grounded Theory, High-Conflict Families, Separation and Divorce, Resilience, and Pre-Teen Children

Social Support in Elderly Nursing Home Populations: Manifestations and Influences (pp. 375-396)
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Elizabeth M. Rash

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of social support and the influencing factors on social support in nursing home environments. Observations and staff questionnaires from two central Florida nursing homes were used in this grounded theory study to answer the following questions: (1) How is social support manifested? and (2) What are influences on social support? Social support manifestations seemed predominantly superficial and did not appear to involve complex reciprocal relationships, however, when reciprocal resident tasks were observed, they appeared to have significant value and were sources of pride for the residents. Facility behaviors and policies required by governmental mandates appeared to result in significant resident dependency, a situation that mitigates against significant social support. Key Words: Social Support, Nursing Home, and Elderly

The Interplay of "Big Five" Personality Factors and Metaphorical Schemas: A Pilot Study with Twenty Lung Transplant Recipients (pp. 397-413)
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L. Goetzmann, K. S. Moser, E. Vetsch, E. Grieder, R. Klaghofer, R. Naef, E. W. Russi, A. Boehler, and C. Buddeberg

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between personality factors and metaphorical schemas. The Big Five personality factors of 20 patients after lung transplantation were examined with the NEO-FFI. Patients were questioned about their social network, and self- and body-image. The interviews were assessed with metaphor analysis. Significant positive correlations were found between extraversion and metaphors for acoustics, play/sport and economy, furthermore between openness to experience and metaphors for acoustics, container, battle, illness. A positive correlation was also found between openness to experience and metaphor frequency. Significant negative correlations were found between conscientiousness and metaphors for illness. The results indicate that personality factors may correspond with certain implicit metaphorical schemas. Key Words: Personality, Big Five, Cognitive Schemas, Metaphor, and Lung Transplantation

Hybrid Chronicles: Biracial and Biethnic Perspectives on the Pedagogy of Unlearning Racism (pp. 414-429)
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Stephanie Wahab and Sunshine "Sunny" T. Nakae-Gibson

Abstract: This article details an autoethnography project of our odysseys into the pedagogy of unlearning racism. Our knowledge creation process forced us to re-envision both our locations in, and pedagogy of, anti-racism work, with particular attention to the challenges and dangers of teaching about, to, and from White privilege within social work. In the end, we are both troubled and invigorated by what we experienced, witnessed, and supported. By asking people of color to share their personal narratives of racism in the presence of Whites, teachers, facilitators, and diversity trainers stand to continue privileging Whiteness where Whites benefit and learn at the expense of people of color. Key Words: Autoethnography, Pedagogy, Anti-Racism, Privilege, and Biracial

Linguistic Alternatives to Quantitative Research Strategies Part One: How Linguistic Mechanisms Advance Research Outcomes (pp. 430-449)
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Joseph Yeager and Linda Sommer

Abstract: Combining psycholinguistic technologies and systems analysis created advances in motivational profiling and numerous new behavioral engineering applications. These advances leapfrog many mainstream statistical research methods, producing superior research results via cause-effect language mechanisms. Entire industries explore motives ranging from opinion polling to persuasive marketing campaigns, and individual psychotherapy to executive performance coaching. Qualitative research tools such as questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups are now transforming static language data into dynamic linguistic systems measurement technology. Motivational mechanisms, especially linguistic mechanisms, allow specific changes within a motives operations. This includes both the choices the intervention creates and its end-goal. Predictable behavior changes are impossible with popular statistical methods. Advanced linguistic research strategies employ motivational change methods with state-of-the-art language and communications modeling. Key Words: Motivational Profiling, Motivation, Systems Analysis, Behavioral Engineering, Content Analysis, Measurement Paradigms, Linguistic Frames, Psycholinguistics, Behavioral Prediction, Quantitative Strategies, Mechanism of Action, and Behavior Change

Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Scale Development (pp. 450-466)
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Noell Rowan and Dan Wulff

Abstract: This article describes the process by which one study utilized qualitative methods to create items for a multi dimensional scale to measure twelve step program affiliation. The process included interviewing fourteen addicted persons while in twelve step focused treatment about specific pros (things they like or would miss out on by not being involved in twelve-step programs) and cons (things they dislike or would benefit from if they did not engage in twelve-step programs). The triangular process used in qualitative research is described, which generated items for the subsequent instrument to measure ambivalence toward recovery programs. Mixed-method strategies included qualitative interviewing to inform scale development and three analytical approaches to produce specific codes, themes, and domains. Key Words: Mixed Method Research, Scale Development, and Twelve Step Programs

Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation (pp. 467-483)
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Joseph Yeager and Linda Sommer

Abstract: Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump. Instantly linguistic processing changes the apples meaning to dangerous. Qualitative data change from static into dynamic measures of motivational changes. Linguistic cause-effect mechanisms dramatically enhance the results and meaning of qualitative research methods, resulting new applications for behavioral engineering, including opinion polling, persuasive marketing campaigns, individual psychotherapy and executive performance coaching. Motivational mechanisms, especially linguistic frames, engineer deliberate and predictable improvements in outcomes, impossible with popular statistical methods. Key Words: Motivational Profiling, Motivation, Systems Analysis, Behavioral Engineering, Content Analysis, Linguistic Frames, Psycholinguistics, Behavioral Prediction, Qualitative Mechanism of Action, and Behavior Change

Laughing with and at Patients: The Roles of Laughter in Confrontations in Addiction Group Therapy (pp. 484-513)
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Ilkka Arminen and Mia Halonen

Abstract: In Minnesota treatment, the therapists aim at breaking clients' denial to encourage them to accept their addiction. However, the confrontation is risky since, instead of making the patient ready for a change, it may strengthen resistance against the diagnosis of addiction and the treatment recommendations. We will explore the role of laughter in confrontational practices. The study is based on conversation analysis of group therapy sessions in an inpatient addiction treatment clinic in Finland (7.5 hours of data altogether). The laughter prevails in three different kinds of practice: laughing off the troubles, strengthening the confrontation by laughing at the patient, and ameliorating the confrontation. Laughter is a flexible device for preventing or resolving the possible risks of confrontation. Key Words: Addiction Treatment, Confrontation, Conversation Analysis, Group Therapy, and Laughter

The Construction of Ethnic Identity of Balkan Muslim Immigrants: A Narrativization of Personal Experiences (pp. 514-546)
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Maya Miskovic

Abstract: This paper explores the construction of ethnic identity in the first generation of Balkan Muslim immigrants now living in the Chicago metropolitan area, with the aim of showing the intricacy of global events (civil wars in the homeland and war on terror in the host society) and local contexts (meaning-making occurring during the interviews). In-depth interviews conducted with three men were treated as a series of narratives in order to emphasize the importance of personal meaning-making. With awareness that Muslim can denote various subjectivities, this paper proposes research that theorizes the constant shift of identities, the interplay between ascribed and performed ethnicity, as well as the role of societal and historical mediators that influence the agency of these identities. Key Words: Balkan Muslims, Immigrants, Ethnic Identity, and Narratives

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