NSU Home  The Qualitative Report
An online journal dedicated to qualitative research since 1990

Volume 11 Number 3 September 2006
    Ronald J. Chenail, Ph.D., Sally St. George, Ph.D., Dan Wulff, Ph.D., and Maureen Duffy, Ph.D., Editors
ISSN 1052-0147

Table of Contents

Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices (pp. 417-449)
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Natalie Johnson-Leslie and LuAnn R. Gaskill

Abstract: While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process and practices in Jamaica. Using the case study approach, five apparel retailers in Jamaica who engaged in retail product development are profiled. In-depth interviews, observations, and documents were used to collect data and results were presented after analysis. The findings revealed that the process of product exclusivity, training of workers, modern technological devices, networking, and product quality were of major concern to apparel retailers in Jamaica, which is shown to be very similar to the retail product development process carried out in the U.S.A. Key Words: Apparel Retailing, Jamaica, Small Business, Product Development, and Qualitative Research

Creating and Using Learning Objects in Qualitative Research Education (pp. 450-473)
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Ronald J. Chenail, Jennifer L. Spong, Jan Chenail, Michele Liscio, Lenworth G. McLean, Holly G. Cox, Brenda Shepherd, and Nura C. Mowzoon

Abstract: Based upon the lessons learned and the educational materials generated from a doctoral course on qualitative data analysis, a group of doctoral students, their professor, and a linguistics consultant launched an on-going project to create a series of reusable learning objects designed to help other groups of students and professors learn how to analyze qualitative data. The results of the first six months of this project are shared, as the team describes how they have begun to use instructional design and software applications to create a digital learning environment in the form of a series of activities engineered to help analysts learn how to master grounded theory open coding. Key Words: Grounded Theory, Reusable Learning Objects, Qualitative Data Analysis, and Digital Learning Environment

Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures (pp. 474-498)
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Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Nancy L. Leech

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research questions. Third, we describe how to write mixed methods research questions, which we define as questions that embed quantitative and qualitative research questions. Finally, we provide a framework for linking research questions to mixed methods data analysis techniques. A major goal of our framework is to illustrate that the development of research questions and data analysis procedures in mixed method studies should occur logically and sequentially. Key Words: Mixed Methods, Quantitative Research Questions, Qualitative Research Questions, and Mixed Methods Data Analysis

Insuring the Uninsured: Reducing the Barriers to Public Insurance (pp. 499-515)
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Cynthia M. Saunders

Abstract: Health insurance is one of the essential enabling resources to gain access to medical care and ultimately increase health status. Over 11 million or one quarter of the nations uninsured individuals are eligible for Medicaid or the State Childrens Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), but are not enrolled. Interviews with 368 individuals from 1999 through 2003 identify eight primary barriers to enrollment in public insurance. These include: economic aspects of qualifying, lack of knowledge, benefit design of public programs, poor experiences and stigma, complexity and literacy, immigration status, poor customer service, and fear of fraud. These results suggest policy options alone are unlikely to result in reaching eligible uninsured individuals unless knowledge and instrumental support are offered to them about insurance. Key Words: Access to Health Care, Barriers to Insurance, Medicaid, SCHIP, Underinsured, and Uninsured

Focused Group Interviews as an Innovative Quanti-Qualitative Methodology (QQM): Integrating Quantitative Elements into a Qualitative Methodology (pp. 516-537)
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Brian J. Grim, Alison H. Harmon, and Judy C. Gromis

Abstract: There is a sharp divide between quantitative and qualitative methodologies in the social sciences. We investigate an innovative way to bridge this gap that incorporates quantitative techniques into a qualitative method, the quanti-qualitative method (QQM). Specifically, our research utilized small survey questionnaires and experiment-like activities as part of the question route in a series of five focused group interviews on nutrition education. We show how these quantitative-type activities fit naturally with our question route and contributed to testing the hypotheses within the context of the five important characteristics of focused group interviews. The innovative use of QQM in focused group interviews makes data analysis easier and more transparent and permits collection of richer, more multifaceted data in a cost-effective fashion. Key Words: Focus Groups, Qualitative-Quantitative Methodology, QQM, and Qualitative Hypothesis Testing

Brief Note on the Origins, Evolution, and Meaning of the Qualitative Research Concept Thick Description (pp. 538-549)
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Joseph G. Ponterotto

Abstract: The origins, cross-disciplinary evolution, and definition of thick description are reviewed. Despite its frequent use in the qualitative literature, the concept of thick description is often confusing to researchers at all levels. The roots of this confusion are explored and examples of thick description are provided. The article closes with guidelines for presenting thick description in written reports. Key Words: Thick Description, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Phenomenology, Thick Interpretation, Thick Meaning, and Qualitative Writing

Intrusive Music: The Perception of Everyday Music Explored by Diaries (pp. 550-565)
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Helen Gavin

Abstract: This paper describes research investigating the perception of intrusive music, that is, music heard when choice, volume, and occurrence are not under the control of the participant. Participants were directed to record diary accounts of episodes in which music was played in instances when they were not in control of the decision to play the music or any characteristic of it, and to record various items about the music, together with any effects on themselves. Strong reactions were discovered during thematic analysis- reactions influencing mood, energy, distractibility, desire to stay or return, and intention to purchase. The implications for commercial use of music are discussed along with the efficacy of the diary method in this context. Key Words: Diaries, Intrusive Music, Retail Outlets, and Thematic Analysis

Conceptual Metaphors as Interpretive Tools in Qualitative Research: A Re-Examination of College Students' Diversity Discussions (pp. 566-585)
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Bruce Kochis and Diane Gillespie

Abstract: In this contribution to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor as a fruitful heuristic for qualitative analysis, the authors re-analyzed transcripts of college student discussions of problematic situations involving cultural diversity and interpersonal conflict. The authors show how they identified metaphorical linguistic expressions and from them derived three conceptual metaphors (life is a journey, the problem is a barrier/maze, and the self is divided) that in turn formed patterns or constellations of meanings in students problem-solving strategies. As an interpretive tool, conceptual metaphors link certain isolated individual metaphors to these larger patterns of meaning, including ideological frameworks readily available in US culture. Key Words: Conceptual Metaphor, Metaphor Analysis, Qualitative Data Analysis, Political Worldviews, Cultural Diversity, and College Students

The Scope of Justice for Muslim Americans: Moral Exclusion in the Aftermath of 9/11 (pp. 586-604)
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Chris L. S. Coryn and Catherine Borshuk

Abstract: This paper details a social psychological study of prejudice and moral exclusion. We investigated whether participants, 47 non-Muslim U.S. citizens enrolled at a Midwestern university, considered Muslim Americans to be within their scope of justice, and whether principles of fairness, restitution, and corrective intervention would be applied to a stimulus Muslim family. Only about one-third of the sample indicated that the Muslim family fell within their scope of justice. Open-ended responses yielded three patterns: (1) threat and revenge toward the out-group; (2) concern with the rights of out-group members; and (3) disconnection from the out-group, along with ambivalence about justice issues. Although explicitly racist statements were detected, so too was a recognition of common humanity with out-group members. Key Words: Moral Exclusion, Scope of Justice, Group Categorization, and Muslim Americans

Cadets Perceptions of Gymnastics Instruction for Officer Development (pp. 605-625)
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Jeffrey D. Coelho and Lynn R. Fielitz

Abstract: The United States Military Academy has offered gymnastics instruction since 1838. Gymnastics continues to be an integral component of the physical education curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate cadets' perceptions of their experiences in a required gymnastics course using the critical incident technique. Students described experiences in the gymnastics class that they believed had a positive or negative influence on their development as cadets and future Army officers. Key elements of their responses were classified into 16 positively perceived and 11 negatively perceived categories. The top positive categories were confidence, encouragement, fear management, modeling, additional instruction, and teamwork. The top negative categories included lack of time, helplessness, discouragement, lack of relevance, unfair grading, and injury. Key Words: Military Instruction, Student Perceptions, Critical Incident, United States Military Academy, Cadet, Physical Readiness Training, Gymnastics, and Motor Fitness

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