Digital Object Identifiers


Scholarly publishers are assigning a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to individual articles and documents. Include the DOI in your citation; see page 7, example #1 in the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.


DOI prominently displayed at the beginning or end of the article:





Sometimes the DOI can be found on the database screen:




Do not use any set of numbers it MUST start with DOI:


You can also use CrossRef to look up DOI numbers:



Using the lookup feature in CrossRef, try author and title:



The DOI is displayed copy and paste to your citation: